Normal Laboratory Values: Blood, Plasma, and Serum

Normal Laboratory Values: Blood, Plasma, and Serum

Reference values vary based on several factors, including the specific laboratory that supplies them. A patient’s blood, plasma, serum test values should be interpreted based on the reference value of the laboratory in which the test was done; the laboratory typically provides these values with the test result.

 

Test

Specimen

Conventional Units

SI Units

Acetoacetate Plasma < 1 mg/dL < 0.1 mmol/L
Acetylcholinesterase (ACE), RBC Blood 26.7–49.2 U/g Hb
Acid phosphatase Serum 0.5–5.5 U/L 0–0.9 mckat/L
Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) Plasma 25–36 sec
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Serum 9–52 pg/mL (morning draw) 2–11 pmol/L (morning draw)
Albumin Serum 3.5–5.4 g/dL 35–54 g/L
Aldosterone
* Standing Serum 7–20 ng/dL 194–554 pmol/L
* Supine Serum 2–5 ng/dL 55–138 pmol/L
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Serum 36–150 U/L 0.5–2.5 mckat/L
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) Serum 83–199 mg/dL 15.3–36.6 mcmol/L
Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Serum 0–20 ng/dL 0–20 pg/L
δ-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) Serum 15–23 mcg/L 1.14–1.75 mcmol/L
Aminotransferase, alanine (ALT) Serum 0–35 U/L 0–0.58 pkat/L
Aminotransferase, aspartate (AST) Serum 0–35 U/L 0–0.58 pkat/L
Ammonia Plasma 40–80 mcg/dL 23–47 mcmol/L
Amylase Serum 0–130 U/L 0–2.17 mckat/L
Antibodies to extractable nuclear antigen (AENA) Serum < 20.0 units
Anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies Serum ≤ 5.0 units
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH; arginine vasopressin) Plasma < 1.7 pg/mL < 1.57 pmol/L
Anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies, IgG Serum < 25 IU
Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies Serum < 0.1 units
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (cANCA) Serum Negative
Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) Serum ≤ 1.0 units
Anti–smooth muscle antibodies (ASMA) titer Serum ≤ 1:80
Antistreptolysin O titer Serum < 150 units
Antithyroid microsomal antibody titer Serum < 1:100
α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) Serum 83–199 mg/dL 15.3–36.6 mcmol/L
Apolipoproteins:
* A-I, females Serum 98–210 mg/dL 0.98–2.1 g/L
* A-I, males Serum 88–180 mg/dL 0.88–1.8 g/L
* B-100, females Serum 44–148 mg/dL 0.44–1.48 g/L
* B-100, males Serum 55–151 mg/dL 0.55–1.51 g/L
Bicarbonate Serum 23–28 mEq/L 23–28 mmol/L
Bilirubin:
     * Direct Serum 0–0.3 mg/dL 0–5.1 mcmol/L
* Total Serum 0.3–1.2 mg/dL 5.1–20.5 mcmol/L
Blood volumes (radioisotope labeling):
* Plasma, females Blood 28–43 mL/kg body wt 0.028–0.043 L/kg body wt
* Plasma, males Blood 25–44 mL/kg body wt 0.025–0.044 L/kg body wt
* RBCs, females Blood 20–30 mL/kg body wt 0.02–0.03 L/kg body wt
* RBCs, males Blood 25–35 mL/kg body wt 0.025–0.035 L/kg body wt
Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP) Plasma < 100 pg/mL
Calcitonin, age ≥ 16 yr:
* Females Serum < 8 pg/mL
* Males Serum < 16 pg/mL
Calcium Serum 9–10.5 mg/dL 2.2–2.6 mmol/L
Cancer antigen (CA):
* CA 125 Serum < 35 U/mL
* CA 15-3 Serum < 30 U/mL
Carbon dioxide (CO2) content Serum 23–28 mEq/L 23–28 mmol/L
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2) Blood 35–45 mm Hg
Carboxyhemoglobin Plasma 0.5–5%
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Serum < 2 ng/mL < 2 mcg/L
Carotene Serum 75–300 mcg/L 1.4–5.6 mcmol/L
CD4:CD8 ratio Blood 1–4
CD4+ T-cell count Blood 640–1175/mcL 0.64–1.18 x 109/L
CD8+ T-cell count Blood 335–875/mcL 0.34–0.88 x 109/L
Ceruloplasmin Serum 25–43 mg/dL 250–430 mg/L
Chloride Serum 98–106 mEq/L 98–106 mmol/L
Cholesterol, desirable level:
* High-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) Plasma ≥ 40 mg/dL ≥ 1.04 mmol/L
* Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) Plasma ≤ 130 mg/dL ≤ 3.36 mmol/L
Total (TC) Plasma 150–199 mg/dL 3.88–5.15 mmol/L
Coagulation factors:
* Factor I Plasma 150–300 mg/dL 1.5–3.5 g/L
* Factor II Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor IX Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor V Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor VII Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor VIII Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor X Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor XI Plasma 60–150% of normal
* Factor XII Plasma 60–150% of normal
Complement:
      * C3 Serum 55–120 mg/dL 0.55–1.20 g/L
* C4 Serum 20–59 mg/dL 0.20–0.59 g/L
Total Serum 37–55 U/mL 37–55 kU/L
Copper Serum 70–155 mcg/L 11–24.3 mcmol/L
Cortisol:
* 1 h after cosyntropin Serum > 18 mcg/dL and usually ≥ 8 mcg/dL above baseline > 498 nmol/L and usually ≥ 221 nmol/L above baseline
* At 5 pm Serum 3–13 mcg/dL 83–359 nmol/L
* At 8 am Serum 8–20 mcg/dL 251–552 nmol/L
     * After overnight suppression test Serum < 5 mcg/dL < 138 nmol/L
C-peptide Serum 0.9–4.3 ng/mL 297–1419 pmol/L
C-reactive protein (CRP) Serum < 0.5 mg/dL < 0.005 g/L
C-reactive protein, highly sensitive (hsCRP) Serum < 1.1 mg/L < 0.0011 g/L
Creatine kinase (CK) Serum 30–170 U/L 0.5–2.83 mckat/L
Creatinine Serum 0.7–1.3 mg/dL 61.9–115 mcmol/L
d-Dimer Plasma ≤ 300 ng/mL ≤ 300 mcg/L
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S):
* Females Plasma 0.6–3.3 mg/mL 1.6–8.9 mcmol/L
* Males Plasma 1.3–5.5 mg/mL 3.5–14.9 mcmol/L
Delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) Serum 15–23 mcg/L 1.14–1.75 mcmol/L
11-Deoxycortisol (DOC):
* After metyrapone Plasma > 7 mcg/dL > 203 nmol/L
* Basal Plasma < 5 mcg/dL < 145 nmol/L
d-Xylose level 2 h after ingestion of 25 g of d-xylose Serum > 20 mg/dL > 1.3 nmol/L
Epinephrine, supine Plasma < 75 ng/L < 410 pmol/L
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR):
* Females Blood 0–20 mm/h 0–20 mm/h
* Males Blood 0–15 mm/h 0–20 mm/h
Erythropoietin Serum 4.0–18.5 mIU/mL 4.0–18.5 IU/L
Estradiol, females:
* Day 1–10 of menstrual cycle Serum 14–27 pg/mL 50–100 pmol/L
* Day 11–20 of menstrual cycle Serum 14–54 pg/mL 50–200 pmol/L
* Day 21–30 of menstrual cycle Serum 19–40 pg/mL 70–150 pmol/L
Estradiol, males Serum 10–30 pg/mL 37–110 pmol/L
Ferritin:
* Females Serum 30–200 ng/mL 30–200 mcg/L
* Males Serum 30–300 ng/mL 30–300 mcg/L
α-Fetoprotein (AFP) Serum 0–20 ng/dL 0–20 pg/L
Fibrinogen Plasma 150–350 mg/dL 1.5–3.5 g/L
Folate (folic acid):
* RBC Blood 160–855 ng/mL 362–1937 nmol/L
* Serum Serum 2.5–20 ng/mL 5.7–45.3 nmol/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), females:
* Follicular or luteal phase Serum 5–20 mU/mL 5–20 U/L
* Midcycle peak Serum 30–50 mU/mL 30–50 U/L
* Postmenopausal Serum > 35 mU/mL > 35 U/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), adult males Serum 5–15 mU/mL 5–15 U/L
Fructosamine Plasma 200–285 mol/L
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) Serum 8–78 U/L
Gastrin Serum 0–180 pg/mL 0–180 ng/L
Globulins: Serum 2.5–3.5 g/dL 25–35 g/L
* Alpha-1 globulins Serum 0.2–0.4 g/dL 2–4 g/L
* Alpha-2 globulins Serum 0.5–0.9 g/dL 5–9 g/L
* Beta globulins Serum 0.6–1.1 g/dL 6–11 g/L
* Beta-2 microglobulin Serum 0.7–1.8 mcg/mL
* Gamma globulins Serum 0.7–1.7 g/dL 7–17 g/L
Glucose:
* 2-h postprandial Plasma < 140 mg/dL < 7.8 mmol/L
* Fasting Plasma 70–105 mg/dL 3.9–5.8 mmol/L
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) Blood 5–15 U/g Hb 0.32–0.97 mU/ mol Hb
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) Serum 8–78 U/L
Growth hormone:
* After oral glucose Plasma < 2 ng/mL < 2 mcg/L
* In response to provocative stimuli Plasma > 7 ng/mL > 7 mcg/L
Haptoglobin Serum 30–200 mg/dL 300–2000 mg/L
Hematocrit:
* Females Blood 36–47%
* Males Blood 41–51%
Hemoglobin:
* Females Blood 12–16 g/dL 120–160 g/L
* Males Blood 14–17 g/dL 140–170 g/L
Hemoglobin A1c Blood 4.7–8.5%
Hemoglobin electrophoresis, adults:
* Hb A1 Blood 95–98%
    * Hb A2 Blood 2–3%
* Hb C Blood 0%
* Hb F Blood 0.8–2.0%
* Hb S Blood 0%
Hemoglobin electrophoresis, Hb F in children:
* Neonate Blood 50–80%
* 1–6 mo Blood 8%
* > 6 mo Blood 1–2%
Homocysteine:
* Females Plasma 0.40–1.89 mg/L 3–14 mcmol/L
* Males Plasma 0.54–2.16 mg/L 4–16 mcmol/L
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), quantitative Serum < 5 mIU/mL
Immunoglobulins:
* IgA Serum 70–300 mg/dL 0.7–3.0 g/L
* IgD Serum < 8 mg/dL < 80 mg/L
* IgE Serum 0.01–0.04 mg/dL 0.1–0.4 mg/L
* IgG Serum 640–1430 mg/dL 6.4–14.3 g/L
* IgG1 Serum 280–1020 mg/dL 2.8–10.2 g/L
* IgG2 Serum 60–790 mg/dL 0.6–7.9 g/L
* IgG3 Serum 14–240 mg/dL 0.14–2.4 g/L
* IgG4 Serum 11–330 mg/dL 0.11–3.3 g/L
* IgM Serum 20–140 mg/dL 0.2–1.4 g/L
Insulin, fasting Serum 1.4–14 mcIU/mL 10–104 pmol/L
International normalized ratio (INR):
* Therapeutic range (standard intensity therapy) Plasma 2.0–3.0
* Therapeutic range in patients at higher risk (eg, patients with prosthetic heart valves) Plasma 2.5–3.5
* Therapeutic range in patients with lupus anticoagulant Plasma 3.0–3.5
Iron Serum 60–160 mcg/dL 11–29 mcmol/L
Iron-binding capacity, total (TIBC) Serum 250–460 mcg/dL 45–82 mcmol/L
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Serum 60–160 U/L 1–1.67 mckat/L
Lactic acid, venous Blood 6–16 mg/dL 0.67–1.8 mmol/L
Lactose tolerance test Plasma > 15 mg/dL increase in plasma glucose level > 0.83 mmol/L increase in plasma glucose level
Lead Blood < 40 mcg/dL < 1.9 mcmol/L
Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP) score Peripheral blood smear 13–130/100/ polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte neutrophils and bands
Lipase Serum < 95 U/L < 1.58 mckat/L
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] Serum ≤ 30 mg/dL < 1.1 mcmol/L
Luteinizing hormone (LH), females:
* Follicular or luteal phase Serum 5–22 mU/mL 5–22 U/L
* Midcycle peak Serum 30–250 mU/mL 30–250 U/L
* Postmenopausal Serum > 30 mU/mL > 30 U/L
Luteinizing hormone, males Serum 3–15 mU/mL 3–15 U/L
Magnesium Serum 1.5–2.4 mg/dL 0.62–0.99 mmol/L
Manganese Serum 0.3–0.9 ng/mL 5.5–16.4 nmol/L
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) Blood 28–32 pg
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Blood 32–36 g/dL 320–360 g/L
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) Blood 80–100 fL
Metanephrines, fractionated:
* Metanephrines, free Plasma < 0.50 nmol/L
* Normetanephrines, free Plasma < 0.90 nmol/L
Methemoglobin Blood < 1.0%
Methylmalonic acid (MMA) Serum 150–370 nmol/L
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) antibodies Serum < 6.0 U/mL
Myoglobin:
* Females Serum 25–58 mcg/L 1.4–3.5 nmol/L
* Males Serum 28–72 mcg/L 1.6–4.1 nmol/L
Norepinephrine, supine Plasma 50–440 pg/mL 0.3–2.6 nmol/L
N-Terminal propeptide of BNP (NT-proBNP) Plasma < 125 pg/mL
5′-Nucleotidase (5’NT) Serum 4–11.5 U/L
Osmolality Plasma 275–295 mOsm/kg H2O 275–295 mmol/ kg H2O
Osmotic fragility test Blood Increased fragility if hemolysis occurs in > 0.5% sodium chloride

Decreased fragility if hemolysis is incomplete in 0.3% sodium chloride

Oxygen partial pressure (PO2) Blood 80–100 mm Hg
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Serum 10–65 pg/mL 10–65 ng/L
Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) Plasma < 2.0 pmol/L
Partial thromboplastin time, activated (aPTT) Plasma 25–35 sec
pH Blood 7.38–7.44
Phosphorus, inorganic Serum 3.0–4.5 mg/dL 0.97–1.45 mmol/L
Platelet count Blood 150–350 x 103/mcL 150–350 x 109/L
Platelet life span, using chromium-51 (51Cr) 8–12 days
Porphyrins Plasma ≤ 1.0 mcg/dL
Potassium Serum 3.5–5 mEq/L 3.5–5 mmol/L
Prealbumin (transthyretin) Serum 18–45 mg/dL
Progesterone:
* Follicular phase Serum < 1 ng/mL < 0.03 nmol/L
* Luteal phase Serum 3–30 ng/mL 0.1–0.95 nmol/L
Prolactin:
* Females (non-pregnant) Serum < 20 mcg/L < 870 pmol/L
* Males Serum < 15 mcg/L < 652 pmol/L
Prostate-specific antigen, total (PSA-T) Serum 0–4 ng/mL
Prostate-specific antigen, ratio of free to total (PSA-F:PSA-T) Serum > 0.25
Protein C activity Plasma 67–131%
Protein C resistance, activated ratio (APC-R) Plasma 2.2–2.6
Protein S activity Plasma 82–144%
Protein, total Serum 6–7.8 g/dL 60–78 g/L
Prothrombin time (PT) Plasma 11–13 sec
Pyruvic acid Blood 0.08–0.16 mmol/L
RBC count Blood 4.2–5.9 x 106 cells/mcL 4.2–5.9 x 1012 cells/L
RBC survival rate, using 51Cr Blood T1/2 = 28 days
Renin activity, plasma (PRA), upright, in males and females aged 18–39 yr:
* Sodium-depleted Plasma 2.9–24 ng/mL/h
* Sodium-repleted Plasma 0.6 (or lower)–4.3 ng/mL/h
Reticulocyte count:
* Percentage Blood 0.5–1.5%
* Absolute Blood 23–90 x 103/mcL 23–90 x 109/L
Rheumatoid factor (RF), by nephelometry Serum < 40 U/mL < 40 kU/L
Sodium Serum 136–145 mEq/L 136–145 mmol/L
Testosterone (total), adults:
* Females Serum 20–75 ng/dL 0.7–2.6 nmol/L
* Males Serum 300–1200 ng/dL 10–42 nmol/L
Thrombin time Plasma 18.5–24 sec
Thyroid iodine-123 (123I) uptake 5–30% of administered dose at 24 h
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Serum 0.5–5.0 mcIU/mL 0.5–5.0 mIU/L
Thyroxine (T4):
* Free Serum 0.9–2.4 ng/dL 12–31 pmol/L
* Free index 4–11
* Total Serum 5–12 mcg/dL 64–155 nmol/L
Transferrin Serum 212–360 mg/dL 2.1–3.6 g/L
Transferrin saturation Serum 20–50%
Triglycerides (fasting) Serum < 250 mg/dL < 2.82 mmol/L
Triiodothyronine (T3):
* Uptake Serum 25–35%
* Total Serum 70–195 ng/dL 1.1–3.0 nmol/L
Troponin I Plasma < 0.1 ng/mL < 0.1 mcg/L
Troponin T Serum ≤ 0.03 ng/mL ≤ 0.03 mcg/L
Urea nitrogen (BUN) Serum 8–20 mg/dL 2.9–7.1 mmol/L
Uric acid Serum 2.5–8 mg/dL 0.15–0.47 mmol/L
Vitamin B12 Serum 200–800 pg/mL 148–590 pmol/L
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid):
* Leukocyte Blood < 20 mg/dL < 1136 mcmol/L
* Total Blood 0.4–1.5 mg/dL 23–85 mcmol/L
Vitamin D:
* 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) Serum 25–65 pg/mL 65–169 pmol/L
* 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol Serum 15–80 ng/mL 37–200 nmol/L
WBC count Blood 4.5–11 x 103 cells/mcL 4.5–11 x 109 cells/L
Segmented neutrophils 2.6–8.5 x 103 cells/mcL 2.6–8.5 x 109 cells/L
Band neutrophils 0–1.2 x 103 cells/mcL 0–1.2 x 109 cells/L
Lymphocytes 0.77–4.5 x 103 cells/mcL 0.77–4.5 x 109 cells/L
Monocytes 0.14–1.3 x 103 cells/mcL 0.14–1.3 x 109 cells/L
Eosinophils 0–0.55 x 103 cells/mcL 0–0.55 x 109 cells/L
Basophils 0–0.22 x 103 cells/mcL 0–0.22 x 109 cells/L
Zinc Serum 66–110 mcg/dL 10.1–16.8 mcmol/L

 

  • Test values are method dependent
  • Test values vary with age
  • Test values are diet-dependent

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